Permanent residence permit in Russia: what does it give?

Jan, 03 2024

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In order for a foreigner to live in Russia, he needs a temporary or permanent permit. However, a temporary residence permit (RVP) is valid in one region, besides its validity period is limited. Therefore, foreign citizens seek to obtain a residence permit in Russia. 

A residence permit (residence permit) is a special status of a foreign citizen on the territory of the Russian Federation, which gives him the right to legally reside in the country, and also gives him a certain list of rights that residents of Russia have. At its core, such a document allows you to live, work, and do business in the country.

Despite the fact that the holder of a residence permit has most of the rights and obligations in Russia, there are some restrictions. All exceptions are prescribed in regulatory legal acts, for example, in Part 3 of Article 62 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. The main limitations include: 

  • Inability to participate in elections at all levels of government. 
  • Inability to hold positions in the municipal service. 
  • Inability to work in public and private structures related to security within the Russian Federation.
  • The holder of a residence permit cannot be elected to public service. 
  • Restrictions on the purchase and ownership of agricultural land, forest resources, as well as in nature reserves and sanctuaries. 
  • Inability to complete military service (including alternative).  

Such exceptions are for the purpose of preserving the constitutional order and sovereignty of the Russian Federation. But it is important to take into account the undoubted advantages that a residence permit gives to its owner. About this, as well as about the procedure for processing the document, we will tell you in detail in this article. 

What rights does a residence permit give in Russia

Having a residence permit, a foreigner can permanently live and work in the country. He has the right to move from region to region, since the document is valid throughout the country. In addition, the presence of a residence permit is a prerequisite for obtaining citizenship in the future. Without this document, in most cases, it will be impossible for a foreigner to become a citizen of the Russian Federation. Other rights include: 

  • A foreign citizen who has received a residence permit has the right to freely change his place of residence, including moving from one region to another. At the same time, he will not have to warn the Ministry of Internal Affairs when arriving in another city. All you need is to register at your new place of residence.
  • A residence permit in Russia gives a foreigner the opportunity to freely cross the border at any time. After obtaining a permanent permit, there is no longer a need to stay on the territory of the Russian Federation without leaving. At the same time, the purposes of entry and exit from Russia can be very different: a vacation, a business visit abroad, a trip to the homeland, treatment, training. They have no actual meaning. The only restriction is the limit of the period of stay of a foreign citizen outside the Russian Federation. According to the current legislation, it should not exceed 6 months (180 days) in total during one calendar year (there are exceptions to this rule). Otherwise, the residence permit will be canceled.
  • The opportunity to work and do business freely in most companies and in any region of the country. However, it should be borne in mind that this advantage applies only to adult document holders. Also, foreign citizens who permanently reside in the country and have received a residence permit acquire the right to a pension. Pension payments are accrued on the same terms as for Russian citizens. 
  • Having received a residence permit in Russia, foreign citizens can make an invitation to enter the territory of the Russian Federation to a resident of another country. It is worth noting that a temporary residence permit does not confer such privileges on a foreign citizen. 
  • The opportunity to use the services of Russian medicine within the framework of the Compulsory Medical Insurance Policy (CHI). In fact, such a right allows a foreign citizen not to pay for a large number of examinations and procedures, as well as for visiting specialists. 
  • The ability to issue social benefits, for example, for the loss of a breadwinner, disability, as well as a number of “children’s” benefits. 
  • Receive free education, including secondary education. 

What duties do a foreign citizen have after obtaining a residence permit

After obtaining a residence permit, a foreigner receives not only the rights, but also the obligations:

  • to notify the Ministry of Internal Affairs annually about his stay in the country;
  • not to leave the state for a period of more than 6 months within one year;
  • to provide for themselves and their family members on the territory of the Russian Federation at least at the level of the subsistence minimum;
  • be registered at the place of your stay;
  • comply with the laws of the Russian Federation, including the Code of Administrative Offences of the Russian Federation and the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. 

Rules for staying in the country for a residence permit for a foreign citizen 

A residence permit is issued for a five-year period with the possibility of further simplified extension. However, it is important to keep in mind that the document can be canceled if certain rules of residence on the territory of the country are not observed. A residence permit can be revoked if a citizen: 

  • Represents a danger that comes from the citizens of the Russian Federation. 
  • Is a sponsor of terrorist or extremist organizations, or he plans to transfer money to the account of such. 
  • Was deported outside the country for five years before obtaining a residence permit. 
  • Reported deliberately false information about himself or his family members when applying for a residence permit.
  • Submitted forged documents when applying for a residence permit. 
  • During his life on the territory of Russia, he received a criminal sentence for a serious or especially serious crime. 
  • Already has an outstanding criminal record for a serious or especially serious crime on the territory of the country or abroad. 
  • During the last calendar year, he was brought to administrative responsibility at least twice under Article 18.8 “Violation by a foreign citizen or a stateless person of the rules of entry into the Russian Federation or the regime of stay (residence) in the Russian Federation” of the Administrative Code of the Russian Federation.
  • Cannot provide a minimum standard of living in Russia for himself and family members. 
  • Moved to a permanent place of residence in another country. 
  • Exceeded the six-month limit for staying abroad. 
  • Registered a fictitious marriage with a citizen / citizen of Russia for obtaining a residence permit. 
  • Has an addiction to narcotic or psychotropic substances. 
  • Has HIV or other socially dangerous infections. 

The procedure for obtaining a residence permit in Russia

You can apply for documents in the usual or simplified mode. 

The general procedure involves the initial receipt of a temporary residence permit (RVP) on the territory of Russia. After continuous residence with this document on the territory of the country for at least 8 months, a foreigner can apply for a residence permit. It is important to keep in mind that the general procedure involves submitting documents within four months preceding the expiration date of the PRTR. 

The general procedure does not apply to such categories of foreign citizens as: 

  • participants of the state program of the Russian Federation for the voluntary resettlement of compatriots from other countries;
  • residents of the Republic of Belarus. 

In the case of marriage with a citizen / citizen of Russia, a foreigner must still obtain a RVP before obtaining a residence permit. 

The essence of the simplified procedure for obtaining a residence permit is the ability to obtain a status without the need for registration of a PRTR. Thus, the duration of the procedure is reduced by 8 months. 

The following categories of foreigners can obtain a residence permit under the simplified scheme:

  • Those who have previously received a residence permit and have spent 8 months in the country. 
  • Minor foreigners who apply for a residence permit at the same time as their parents, as well as children of non-residents who have a residence permit. 
  • A former citizen of the USSR, born on the territory of the RSFSR. 
  • Non–residents who have parents or children who are Russian citizens living in the country on a permanent basis. 
  • Highly qualified specialist together with family members. 
  • Representatives of socially significant and other important professions who have worked for more than six months in the country. This list includes doctors, engineers, turners.  
  • Non-residents who have received the “red diploma” of a bachelor’s degree in full-time education.
  • A non-resident recognized as incapacitated if his guardian is a citizen of Russia or the owner of a residence permit. 
  • Participant of the state program for the voluntary resettlement of compatriots to Russia.
  • A non-resident who is a native speaker of the Russian language in accordance with Article 33.1 No. 62-FZ “On Citizenship of the Russian Federation”.
  • Resident of the Republic of Belarus. 
  • A person and his direct relatives who were previously deported from the territory of the Crimean ASSR. 
  • A foreigner who has received political asylum in the territory of the Russian Federation.
  • A person who previously renounced the citizenship of the Russian Federation. 
  • A person in respect of whom the court overturned the decision to accept citizenship. 

Documents required for obtaining a residence permit

Of course, the need to obtain a residence permit obliges a foreigner to collect a certain package of documents, submit it to the migration department at the place of stay and wait for a positive decision.

The list of required documents includes:

  1. Application in two copies. As a rule, the sample is printed out in advance and filled in at home. If desired, you can take it from the migration department and fill it out when submitting documents. For minors and incapacitated foreign citizens, an application is submitted by official guardians. 
  2. Receipt of payment of state duty. The amount of the state fee per applicant is 5000 rubles. When paying for a receipt through the portal “Public Services”, a 30% discount is provided. 
  3. Passport. It is important to keep in mind that the application will not be accepted if less than 4 or 2 months remain before the expiration of the document.
  4. Birth certificate for minors. 
  5. Four photos in 35 ×45 mm format.
  6. Certificate of proficiency in the Russian language, as well as courses in history and law. Issued by accredited organizations. The cost of passing the exam is 5000 rubles. The validity period is 5 years. Minors, pensioners, native speakers of the Russian language recognized as such in accordance with No. 62-FZ, voluntary migrants, holders of a Russian certificate or diploma of higher education, citizens of the Republic of Belarus may not provide the document. 
  7. Certificates from the medical commission. As a rule, a general certificate of health is issued, as well as documents on the absence of socially dangerous infections and addictions. The validity period is 3 months. 
  8. Income confirmation documents. A foreigner is obliged to have a legal income on the territory of Russia not lower than the minimum wage (minimum wage). A 2-personal income tax certificate or a bank statement can confirm its presence.
  9. Confirmation of the place of residence. It is necessary if you have been in the country for more than 3 years. The migration authorities will accept as an extract from the EGRN about the property or a lease agreement. 

It is important to take into account that such a list is established not only for foreigners of working age, but also for minors, pensioners, as well as incapacitated, officially recognized as such. 

If we summarize all of the above, then obtaining a residence permit is so attractive for a foreign citizen, primarily due to a number of significant advantages that he will have. However, do not forget about the duties that are imposed on a foreigner as soon as he receives a residence permit. In case of violation of the above conditions, the document may be canceled.

VALEN specialists will give extended advice on obtaining a residence permit in Russia. We also offer assistance in obtaining the necessary documents and submitting them to the relevant authorities. You can contact us via the website or by the phone numbers listed at the top of the page.

Author of the article
Permanent residence permit in Russia: what does it give?
Valentina Khlavich
Managing Partner
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Thanks for productive informations.

What documents to provide for minor children to get permanent residency as with their parents? Do their residency to be attached in their parents’ ВНЖ?

My kids have expired attached visa as it was no longer available or offer by the Migration office for minors.

Children are here in Russia with our going out since 2019.

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